Day 1 :
University of California, USA
Time : 10:00-10:30
Jeffrey H Miller is a distinguished Professor in Microbiology, Immunology, & Molecular Genetics in the University of California, Los Angeles. He completed his Postdoc in the Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. In 2011 he is elected as a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Vancomycin (VAN) is an effective antibiotic against certain multi-drug resistant Gram-positive pathogens, such as MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). The large size of this glycopeptide precludes it from penetrating the outer membrane of Gram-negative cells, rendering it ineffective against Gram-negative infections. However, a very small amount of VAN does enter Gram-negative cells. We sought to exploit this small concentration by finding synergies with approved drugs. We have detected strong synergies in the Gram-negative Escherichia coli between VAN and nitrofurantoin (NIT), and also trimethoprim (TMP). Concentrations of VAN as low as 12.5 µ g/ml can display an effect with NIT and concentrations of VAN of 6.25 µ g/ml can show effects with TMP. Combinations of approved drugs that are already in use offer important advantages over screening for new drugs, as the former can be applied in a clinical setting with far less delays. We have also used synergy in pair-wise drug interactions to examine models of antibiotic mechanism of action and to understand the mechanism of synergy itself.
Fiber Cell Systems Inc., USA
Time : 10:30-11:00
John J S Cadwell received his degree in Pharmacology from the University of Miami in 1981. Since that time he served in various sales, marketing and business development capacities until founding FiberCell System in 2000. As president and CEO he has filed and been issued three patents in the field of hollow fiber bioreactors and authored many publications in the field
The recent introduction of hollow fiber bioreactor cartridges represents an important advancement in the field of in vitro toxicology. Many toxicologists believe in vitro testing methods are a useful, time and cost effective tool for drug discovery but it is generally accepted that many of the available tests are not effective for examining both time and concentration, and do not closely mimic human kinetics. This is because they do not properly take into account pharmacodynamic actions (what a drug does to the body) and pharmacokinetic actions (what a body does to the drug). Recently, with the use of hollow fiber bioreactor cartridges, this has changed. The hollow fiber infection model is a useful addition to standard in vitro toxicology methods as it mimics changes in drug concentration over time, as they would occur in humans. An overview of historic pk/pd models is presented and the utility of the hollow fiber infection model as it relates to antibiotics and other drugs are discussed.