Day 1 :
Charles University, Czech Republic
Time : 08:45-09:15
Vaclav Bunc has earned his PhD at Technical University Prague. He is a Professor in the Exercise Physiology from Charles University Prague Main topics: exercise physiology, obesity reduction, body composition, BIA methods, moving regimes for prevention in cardiac and obese patients. He is Member of Czech and International scientific societies, Head of many research projects, Author of the great numbers of research reports.
Children obesity is a growing problem over the world. The cause of the overweight and obesity increase in the present population is energy intake non-adapting to its issue. In western countries an energy intake has stagnated over the past two decades, the energy expenditure for the same period drop down by 30%. The study goal was to assess the effect of movement intervention in girls differing in the BM. Study was carried out in 82 girls with normal BM (mean age=13.2±2.9years; BM=45.3±2.7kg; height=157.5±4.0cm; % BF=21.8±2.4%, VO2peak=42.3±2.6ml.kg-1.min-1), 59 overweight girls (13.4±2.7; 54.0±3.0; 159.3±3.1; 26.6±2.7%, 36.1±2.2) and 41 obese girls (13.3±3.0; 64.2±4.1; 159.6±3.4; 30.5±3.1%, 30.6±2.2). Body composition was assessed by Bioimpedance method using prediction equations that are valid for the Czech girls, functional variables were assessed on a treadmill. The intervention was on intensity ranged from 75 to 85% of HRpeak, and exercise duration was 9 weeks. The energy content of weekly movement program for boys with normal BM ranged from 1450 kcal to 2650 kcal (mean 2050±330 kcal) in overweight from 1591 kcal to 2390 kcal (1990±290 kcal) and in obese from 1680 kcal to 2290 kcal (1986±330 kcal). Reduction in % BF ranged from 13.9% in obese to 15.0% in normal BM of starting value, ECM/BCM relationship decreased from 11.9% in subjects with normal BM to 13.2% in obese and in VO2peak increased from 14.9% in normal BM to 15.8% in obese. In girls differing in BM are absolute changes in adiposity and aerobic fitness like a result of imposed movement intervention substantively and statistically significant. On the contrary, differences in percentages of pre-intervention values are non-significant. We can conclude that an exercise program with a similar energy content, form and intensity causes the similar changes in adiposity and in motor and functional performance in girls, differing in BM.
Liverpool John Moores University, UK
Time : 09:15-09:45
Imran Saleem is a Professor in Nanomedicine in the School of Pharmacy & Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, U K. His research is aimed at developing novel delivery systems for targeting therapeutic agents to their site of action, with particular emphasis on lung diseases via pulmonary delivery. He has over 15 years’ experience in the area of micro/nanoparticle formulation and drug delivery systems, and has published extensively in peer-reviewed journals, conference abstracts and book chapters. His research group is focused on the design and development of nanocarriers for delivery of biomacromolecules including, genes, peptides, vaccines and drugs.
There is a huge drive in the vaccine research field and pharmaceutical industry for effective targeting of Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs) to enhance the immune response and for needle-free vaccination. The aim of this study was to adsorb pneumococcal antigen (PA), onto in house developed polymer-based nanoparticles (NPs) to target lung APCs. Further to formulate these NPs into dry powder nanocomposite microparticles (NCMPs) suitable for pulmonary vaccine delivery. NPs were prepared using an emulsion solvent evaporation method and PA was adsorbed onto the surface of NPs (100:20). The NPs were spray-dried in an aqueous suspension of leucine to produce NCMPs and characterised in terms of particle size, loading, cell viability, protein stability (SDS-PAGE), antigenicity (ELISA), immunization and aerosolisation studies. The NPs produced were 322.83±4.25 nm in size with PA loading 19.68±2.74 µg/mg. The NCMPs resulted in a fine particle fraction (FPF%) >75%. The NPs appear to be well tolerated by APCs cell lines ≥90% cell viability) at 19.5µg/mL after 4h exposure. SDS-PAGE, and the antigenicity (>95%) confirmed that PA was stable in both formulations after spray-drying. The cfu in BALF of mice challenged with pneumococcal bacteria was signifcantly less compared to PA alone in the lungs or via subcutaneous injection.
National University of Sciences and Technology “NUST”, Oman
Keynote: How far is the effect of Subminimal Inhibitory Concentration (Sub MIC) on virulence factors expressed by bacteria?
Time : 09:45-10:15
Nida’a Mohammed Ali Wadi is a Register Pharmacist for more than 30 years. She is a Sr. lecturer at Oman Medical College (currently named NUST, National University of Science and Technology). She has practiced as a Lecturer in Medical College and Sr. lecturer Pharmacy College for several years. She has many contributions as Speaker, Poster Presenter as well as published some articles. She teaches in the graduate pharmacy program different pharmacy subjects and she is Chairperson of training program for national and international training Coordinator with West Virginia Pharmacy College, USA & JSS India. Her interest of research is on antibiotic resistance (Beta Lactamases) and formulation and evaluation of local delivery system.
Antibiotic medications are widely used in the treatment and prevention of various infections. An increase in the rate and extent of antibacterial action can be ranged over a wide of antimicrobial concentration but should be within minimum inhibitory concentration where this concentration represents the Minimum effective of antibacterial agent (MIC). Sub inhibitory antimicrobial concentration (Sub MIC) may produce antibacterial effect. The major virulence factors associated with infections are the ability to adhere to tissue and initiates interaction of bacterial cell with tissue. It is potential in the pathogenesis of certain infectious disease. Agents interfering with the process of bacterial adhesion may have beneficial prophylactic or therapeutic effects. Many studies indicate that certain antibiotics affect bacterial adhesion at low concentrations. Sub inhibitory concentrations (Sub MIC) of some antibiotics may have an effect on bacterial structure and influence the adhesion of bacterial adhesion to epithelial cells. It has been observed that the pili play an important role in the attachment and an important prerequisite factor for the pathogenesis of the bacteria. Various antibiotics in Sub MIC concentrations markedly impair adhesion of Streptococcus pyogenes and Escherichia coli to human cells like loss of lipoteichoic acid that binds the organism to host cells. In this study certain characters of the isolated pathogen in vitro and the presence and absence of pili on the surface of the organism were studied. We utilized an in vitro assay system to study the effect of Sub MIC of various antibiotics on Escherichia coli. The results demonstrate that some antibiotics change the adhesiveness of Escherichia coli strains. Subminimum inhibitory concentration of various antibiotics showed the ability to reduce the colonization. Investigating the effects of Sub MIC antibiotics bacterial adhesion to epithelial cells may lead to the development of future antibiotic treatment modalities and may suggest a new parameter for the use and the study of antibacterial agents.
Arizona State University, USA
Time : 10:30-11:00
Adriana Dornelles is a Biostatistician whose work has focused on the examination of the social determinants of health. She earned her Doctoral degree in Biostatistics at Tulane University, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine in New Orleans, LA. Her current research interests have focused on the relationship between the aspects of the local food environment and health behaviors and outcomes. She also works as a Statistical Consultant performing statistical analyses for researchers and MDs in the fields of behavioral sciences, education and medical research.
Background: Although the relationship between residential food environments and health outcomes have been extensively studied, the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and multiple food environments have not been fully explored. We examined the relationship between characteristics of three distinct food environments and BMI among elementary school employees in the metropolitan area of New Orleans, LA. We assessed the food environments around the residential and worksite neighborhoods and the commuting corridors.
Research Methodology & Principal Findings: This study combined data from three different sources: individual and worksite data (ACTION), food retailer database (Dunn and Bradstreet), and the U.S. Census TIGER/Line Files. Spatial and hierarchical analyses were performed to explore the impact of predictors at the individual and environmental levels on BMI. When the three food environments were combined, the number of supermarkets and the number of grocery stores at residential food environment had a significant association with BMI (β=0.56 and β=0.24, p<0.01), whereas the number of full-service restaurants showed an inverse relationship with BMI (β=-0.15, p<0.001). For the commute corridor food environment, it was found that each additional fast-food restaurant in a vicinity of one kilometer traveled contributed to a higher BMI (β=0.80, p<0.05), while adjusting for other factors. No statistical associations were found between BMI and worksite food environment.
Conclusions: The current study was the first to examine the relationship between BMI and food environments around residential neighborhoods, work neighborhoods and the commuting corridor. Significant results were found between BMI and the availability of food stores around residential neighborhoods and the commuting corridor, adjusted for individual-level factors. This study expands the analysis beyond residential neighborhoods, illustrating the importance of multiple environmental factors in relation to BMI.
University of London and UCL, UK
Keynote: Repurposing common Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) could potentially reverse intrinsic antibiotic resistance in the TB-causing superbug
Time : 11:00-11:30
Sanjib Bhakta is a full Professor of Molecular Microbiology and Biochemistry, Strategic Dean (Internationalisation and Partnership) and Programme Director of MRes Global Infectious Diseases at the Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, Birkbeck, University of London and UCL. His continued research interest in infectious bacterial diseases (funded by Wellcome Trust, Medical Research Council, UK and EU) is focused on developing novel therapeutics as well as repurposing existing drugs to tackle antibiotic resistance and persistence in tuberculosis (TB), a global health and economic emergency. To date, he has published more than 100 original research articles for a number of internationally acclaimed journals including J. Exp. Med., JBC, Tuberculosis, Biochem. J., JAC, FEBS J, Mol Micro, British Medical Journal, PLOS, J. Med Chem and Nat Sci Report.
The rise of antimicrobial resistance is leading to ever-more untreatable illness. Intracellularly surviving bacterial pathogens have endogenous machinery to evade host defenses as well as antibiotic treatment. Drug efflux and formation of biofilms are the two key fundamental mechanisms of intrinsic resistance which render many antibiotics ineffective against them. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has unique multi-drug transporter protein complexes that allow the pathogen to take up nutrients for survival, while allowing it to extrude deleterious ones so as the signaling molecules for quorum-sensing leading to biofilm formation. Our work has shown that the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsaids) have anti-bacterial action against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The most potent NSAID so far, at sub-inhibitory concentrations, inhibited whole-cell efflux pumps activity at par with/better than potent efflux pump inhibitors such as verapamil and chlorpromazine. In addition, the NSAID inhibited mycobacterial biofilm formation significantly. Analysis of the extracellular polymeric substances of treated biofilm showed macromolecular alterations compared to the untreated controls. Furthermore, transcriptomic analysis revealed modulation of key metabolic pathways in NSAID-treated M. Tuberculosis revealing novel endogenous targets of the drug. The over-the-counter immunomodulatory drug’s new antibiotic action has paved an alternative route for tackling antimicrobial resistance in tuberculosis (TB).