Day 1 :
Adebowale Olufemi Adeluola
University of Lagos, Nigeria
Title: Antibacterial activity of Methanolic extracts of Chrysophyllum albidum on known multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens
Adebowale Olufemi Adeluola is a lecturer and researcher with special interest in Pharmaceutical Microbiology. He has his Bachelor of Pharmacy (B. Pharm) undergraduate degree from the University of Benin in 1983; Master of Science degree in Pharmaceutical microbiology from the University of Benin (1988) and a PhD also in Pharmaceutics & Pharmaceutical microbiology from the University of Lagos in 2015. Over the years spanning a total of 17 years’ experience in academics, he has conducted research in the area of Pharmaceutical microbiology and has mentored up to 60 students. Before venturing into the line of academics, he has worked extensively in the Nigerian Pharmaceutical industry with varied experience in product development, production and quality control of various forms of Pharmaceutical products. He is currently a member of the Pharmaceutical Society of Nigeria (PSN) and the Nigeria Association of Pharmacists in Academia (NAPA)
Statement of the Problem: The development of resistance to antimicrobial drugs by most bacteria, has posed an enormous therapeutic challenge worldwide requiring the need for continuous research for the discovery of safe and efficacious antimicrobial agents of herbal origin to tackle these microorganisms. Medicinal plants have been found to exhibit antimicrobial activity due to compounds such as alkaloids and organo-sulphur compounds, against many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. This study was aimed at investigating the phytochemical constituents and the antimicrobial properties of extracts of different parts of Chrysophyllum albidum fruit against known Multidrug (MDR) Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: From the cleaned ripe fruits of Chrysophyllum albidum procured from a local market in Lagos, Nigeria, extraction of the dried powdered fruit parts was done by a maceration technique, with absolute methanol as the solvent. Extracts of the various parts of the Chrysophyllum albidum were screened for phytochemical compounds using the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) standard analytical methods. Six strains of Gram positive bacteria, and eleven Gram negative isolates from our laboratory stock, were used in this study for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test (AST) and determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) using standard test methods. Findings: Extracts of the Peel, Seed and Mesocarp all gave positive results for Saponin, Reducing sugar, Phenolic compounds, Tanins, Flavenoids, Terpenoids and Alkaloids. Extracts from the various parts of the fruit, gave appreciable zones of inhibition from the antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) carried out on the tested Gram positive organisms and Gram negative test organisms at the test concentrations. Following the same pattern in the AST, the Gram positive and the Gram negative test isolates gave MIC and MBC test results ranging from 10.24 mg/ml to 40 mg/ml for the various extracts. Conclusion & Significance: Results showed the plant extract has a broad-spectrum of antibiotic activity over the test isolates, including some found to be resistant to Ciprofloxacin.
Noha Tharwat Abou El- Khier
Mansoura University, Egypt
Title: Antimicrobial activity of zinc oxide nano particles against multi drug resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli
Noha Tharwat Abou El-Khier graduated (Excellent with honors) from the Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University (M.B.B.Ch.) in 1999. She completed her PhD in Basic Medical Science (Medical Microbiology & Immunology) in 2011 from the Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University. She worked as a Demonstrator, Assistant Lecturer, Lecturer Assistant Professor at Mansoura University. Currently, she is working as a professor in the department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University. She is a member of the American Society of Microbiology (ASM), ESMM, Egyptian ESIC. She is a reviewer and editor in many microbiology Journals. She has published 38 papers in national and international journals. She collaborated in many conferences and workshops and symposia. She is the head of the Infection Control Team and a member of Infection Control Committee in Mansoura University Hospitals. Research interests: Medical Bacteriology; Molecular Biology; Infection control.
Multi Drug Resistance (MDR) in Uro-Pathogenic E. coli (UPEC) causing Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) is an emerging and serious public health problem that has become one of the major global concerns. Contrary to the synthetic drugs, some inorganic Nano Particles (NPs) are not associated with many side effects and have a great therapeutic potential to treatment of infectious caused by resistant microbes. We aimed to study Zinc Oxide Nano Particles (ZnO NPs) as an alternative antibacterial agent for controlling MDR UPEC. The study was carried out on 40 MDR UPEC isolates collected from patients admitted to Mansoura University Hospitals. The selected isolates were tested for the effect of different concentrations of ZnO NPs alone as an antibacterial agent and the combined effect of antibiotics and ZnO NPs as an antibacterial agent by the agar well diffusion method. Effect of ZnO NPs on UPEC isolates were confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscope. Of all used concentrations of ZnO NPs, the concentration (4.176 g/l) was the most active one with inhibition zones diameter ranged between (14-26 mm) and the second concentration (1.392 g/l) caused inhibition zones diameter ranged between (14-24 mm), followed by (0.464,0.154,0.051,0.017,0.0057 g/l) respectively. The antibacterial activity of antibiotics such as meropenem, piperacillin tazobactam, cefepime, amoxicillin clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin, gentamycin, amikacin, aztreonam, nitrofurantoin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, cefaclor, tetracycline and norfloxacin respectively against E. coli was increased considerably in the presence of ZnO NPs while the antibacterial activity of cefotaxime was not increased considerably in the presence of ZnO NPs. ZnO NPs were effective in controlling MDR UPEC isolates in vitro. Increasing the concentrations of ZnO, NPs lead to more inhibition of UPEC growth. Further studies are recommended to study its efficacy in vivo
Laboratory Applied Nanotechnologies of Belousov, Ukraine
Title: Discovery of new antibacterial mechanisms of influence of magnetite nanoparticles MCS-B
Andrey Belousov is Doctor of Medicine, Author a new medicine products–nanotechnology preparations based on magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4) of the size 6-12 nm: the peroral form-Micromage-B (the biologically active additive officially registration in Ukraine); Magnet-Controlled Sorbent Brand of MCS-B for extracorporal detoxication of biological liquids (officially registration in Ukraine and was allowed for medical practice); Nanobiocorrector for intravenous application–ICNB (intracorporal nanosorbent). He published more than 240 scientific works on results application of nanotechnology preparation in experimental and practical medicine. He is the Head of Laboratory Applied Nanotechnologies of Belousov in Ukraine, DM, Professor of Department Anesthesiology, Intensive Care, Transfusiology and Hematology Kharkov Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education.
The influence of basic physical factors caused by magnetite nanoparticles (constant magnetic field and sorption) on microorganisms by examining the reactions of the intensity of Free Radical Lipid Peroxidation (FRLP) and bacteriostatic action was studied. It was well established that the magnetite nanoparticles (MCS-B) caused unequal reaction in intensity of FRLP on different groups of microorganisms. It was determined that the most significant factor that influenced on the ultimate indicator of the intensity of luminescence on Candida albicans, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was constant magnetic field which induced by nanoparticles. On the contrary, sorption was the most significant factor on Staphylococcus aureus. It was found that the rate of consumption of free radicals lipid reduced reliably on all microorganisms after their processing by magnetite nanoparticles (MCS-B). The results of microbiological studies of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus showed that bacteriostatic effect was detected after exposure by magnetite nanoparticles. Visually, it was detected by decreasing the number of colonies on the nutritious medium in comparison with the control (Figure 1). It was revealed an interesting fact that saline NaCl, which had previously been processed by magnetite nanoparticles also significantly, had a marked bacteriostatic effect on the studied microorganisms. This effect could be explained by mechanism of change the polarization structure water of microorganisms by magnetite nanoparticles (MCS-B).
Kingston University, United Kingdom
Title: Optimising antibiotic therapy for inpatient and outpatient settings
Fawaz is a recent pharmaceutical/analytical chemistry PhD graduate. Her doctoral and postdoctoral research conducted at Kingston University focused on optimising dosing regimens of antibiotics. Previously we have been able to outpace bacterial mutations by replacing increasingly ineffective antibiotics with new agents. However, with the discovery of new antibiotics diminishing, optimising the administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics has become a necessity. By utilising the bench-to-bedside approach, she has been addressing the clinical challenges reported in the literature and experienced on hospital wards by healthcare professionals in the laboratory.
Not only have antibiotics saved countless patients’ lives but they have also played a crucial role in supporting major advances in modern medicine. However, precipitously emerging resistant bacterial strains jeopardise the remarkable advances achieved with antibiotics. In the past, the development of new antibiotics was an effective strategy to combat resistant bacteria. However, with the discovery of new antibiotics diminishing, optimising the administration of currently available antibiotics has become a necessity. A strategy of particular interest involves applying pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics concepts to optimize time-dependent antibiotics dosing regimens. The latter is a growing area of interest for reducing the development of antibiotic resistance and it involves differential dosing regimens such as prolonged or continuous infusions of beta lactam antibiotics.
Zerihun Tesfaye Nigussie
Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia
Title: Screening of Aloe otallensis exudate and its effect on L .Donovani parasite
Tesfaye Zerihun, graduated in Chemistry Diploma from Kotebe teaching college on June, 2006 and Bachelor of pharmacy on July 2011 from Addis Ababa University. He is employed at Addis Ababa University aklilu Lema institution of path biology Research center on September 2007 as Technical Assistance and served for the past 5 years. He is Giving Technical support for Master and PhD students both on the field and Laboratory. Currently, He is working as a chief Pharmacist at Addis Ababa University, college of Health Science, Black lion specialized Teaching Hospital in Mentoring under graduate pharmacy students who are coming to the hospital for clinical attachment both at the ward and dispensary area. He is also participating in some of Clinical research which is under go in the Hospital beside the routine work.
Objective: To evaluate antileishmanial activity of methanolic extract of Aloe otallensis (A. otallensis) on the promastigote stage of Leishmania donovani (L. donovani) as compared to standard drugs and to screen its phytochemical constituents. Methods: Phytochemical screening was done by using the method mentioned by Evans and Trease on methanolic extract of the exudates of Aloe otallensis leaves. The extract was also evaluated for in vitro antileishmanial activity against L. donavani which is found from the Parasitology Unit of Black Lion Hospital. The result was compared to standard drugs of sodium stibogluconate, milfostin and paramomycin. Results: The extract has a good antileishmanial activity with an IC50 of 0.123 0 μg/mL on L. donovani (AM 563). The experimental data showed that relatively it had better activity than paramomycin and milfostin but less activity than sodium stibogluconate. The data analyses were done by GraphPad Prism version 5 software after it was read by ELISA reader at the wave length of 650 nm. The phytochemical screening of the exudates of A. otallensis showed the presence of phenol, alkaloid and saponin. Conclusion: The methanol extract of the exudates of A.otallensis has a good anti-leishmaniasis activity this may be attributed to phenol, alkaloid and saponin present in the plant. But it needs further analysis for the conformation of which constituent presents in high concentration to know which one has the strongest effect.