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11th World Congress and Exhibition on Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance, will be organized around the theme “Use antibiotic wisely-Prevent antimicrobial resistance ”

Antibiotics 2024 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Antibiotics 2024

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Antibiotics are a type of antimicrobials that are used in treatment and prevention of bacterial infections. They may kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. Many antibiotics are also effective against protozoans and fungi; some are toxic to humans and animals also, even when given in therapeutic dosage. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses such as common cold or influenza, and may be harmful when taken inappropriately. Physicians must ensure the patient has a bacterial infection before prescribing antibiotics.

  • Introduction to antibiotic uses and challenges
  • Basic principles of prescribing antibiotics
  • Mechanisms of bacteriostatic or bactericidal action
  • Antibiotic Use Linked to Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosis

Antibiotic resistance is a growing concern in the field of medicine and public health. It refers to the ability of bacteria to survive and grow in the presence of antibiotics that were originally effective in killing or inhibiting their growth. The mechanism and evolution of antibiotic resistance is a complex process that involves genetic changes in bacteria over time. The evolution of antibiotic resistance is driven by the selective pressure imposed by the use of antibiotics. When antibiotics are introduced into an ecosystem, they kill susceptible bacteria, but some bacteria may possess resistance genes that allow them to survive and reproduce. These resistant bacteria then have a selective advantage over susceptible bacteria, leading to the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant strains. Additionally, the misuse and overuse of antibiotics in both human and animal populations contribute to the rapid evolution of resistance. The constant evolution of antibiotic resistance poses a significant threat to human health, as it limits the effectiveness of antibiotics in treating infections. It is crucial for healthcare providers to adopt responsible antibiotic prescribing practices and for researchers to develop new antibiotics and alternative treatment strategies to combat this growing problem.

Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections are a serious and growing global health concern. These infections occur when bacteria become resistant to the drugs that were originally designed to kill or inhibit their growth. As a result, the effectiveness of antibiotics in treating these infections is greatly reduced, leading to prolonged illness, increased healthcare costs, and higher mortality rates. There are several factors contributing to the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. The misuse and overuse of antibiotics, both in healthcare settings and in agriculture, play a significant role. When antibiotics are used unnecessarily or inappropriately, bacteria have more opportunities to develop resistance. Additionally, the spread of resistant bacteria between individuals and healthcare facilities can occur, further exacerbating the problem. Common infections such as urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and bloodstream infections are increasingly becoming more difficult to treat due to antibiotic resistance. In some cases, there may be limited or no effective treatment options available, leading to increased morbidity and mortality rates.

Microorganisms have long been recognized as a valuable source of antibiotics. Many bacteria and fungi have the ability to produce compounds that inhibit the growth of other microorganisms, providing them with a competitive advantage in their environment. These antibiotic-producing microorganisms have played a crucial role in the development of antibiotics that are used to treat bacterial infections in humans. Bacteria such as Streptomyces and Bacillus, as well as fungi like Penicillium and Aspergillus, are well-known producers of antibiotics. These microorganisms have the genetic machinery to synthesize complex molecules with antimicrobial properties. Through a process of biosynthesis, they produce and release these antibiotics into their surroundings.The discovery and isolation of antibiotic-producing microorganisms has been essential in the development of new antibiotics. Scientists have been able to study the chemical structures and mechanisms of action of these natural compounds, leading to the synthesis of modified or more potent versions of antibiotics. 

In the prior most drugs have been invented either by identifying the active ingredient from traditional remedies or by serendipitous discovery. A new access has been to recognize how disease and infection are controlled at the molecular and physiological level and to mark specific entities based on this knowledge. The process of drug discovery involves the identification of candidates, characterization, screening, synthesis, and assays for therapeutic efficacy. Evolution of an existing drug molecule from a ordinary form to a novel delivery system can significantly improve its performance in terms of patient compliance, efficacy and safety. These days, drug delivery companies are engaged in the development of numerous platform technologies to get ambitious advantage, extend patent life, and increase market share of their products. Formerly a compound has displayed its value in these tests; it will begin the process of drug development prior to clinical trials.

  • Policies to stimulate drug development and discovery
  • Role of computational biology
  • Ligand binding studies
  • Transport (simulation studies)
  • Molecule mediating transport

An antimicrobial therapy kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, or protozoans. Antimicrobial agents are some of the most widely, and often used therapeutic drugs worldwide. It contributes significantly to the quality of life of many people and reduces the morbidity and mortality due to infectious disease. The remarkable success of antimicrobial therapy has been achieved with comparatively little toxicity and expense.

Certain bacterial infections now oppose all antibiotics. The resistance problem may be reversible, but only if society begins to acknowledge how the drugs affect "good" bacteria as well as "bad". Historically, most antibacterials were used in hospitals, where they were integrated into surgical clothes and soaps to limit the spread of infection. More recently, however, those substances (including  triclosan, triclocarbon and such quaternary ammonium compounds as benzalkonium chloride) have been mixed into lotions, dish-washing detergents and soaps meant for general consumers. They have also been impregnated into such items as cutting boards, toys, high chairs and mattress pads. 

  • Antibiotics and alternatives
  • Grand challenges – antimicrobial resistance
  • Systemic intervention – values, conflict and blue room resolution
  • Intervention against antimicrobial resistance – approaches and implementation

Antimicrobial prophylaxis is generally used by clinicians for the prevention of numerous infectious diseases. Optimal antimicrobial agents for prophylaxis should be nontoxic, inexpensive, bactericidal and active against the typical pathogens that can motive surgical site infection postoperatively. To maximize its effectiveness, intravenous perioperative prophylaxis should be carried out within 30 to 60 minutes before the surgical incision. Antimicrobial prophylaxis should be of short time to downturn toxicity and antimicrobial resistance and to reduce cost.

  • Prevention of microbial infection
  • Antibiotic selection
  • Advantages of long-acting antibiotics
  • Antibiotics in aquaculture

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also called Host Defence Peptides (HDPs) are part of the innate immune response found among all classes of life. AMPs have a broad spectrum of targeted organisms ranging from viruses to parasites. These peptides are potent, broad spectrum antibiotics which demonstrate potential as novel therapeutic agents. Unlike the majority of conventional antibiotics it appears that antimicrobial peptides frequently destabilize biological membranes, can form transmembrane channels, and may also have the ability to enhance immunity by functioning as Immunomodulatory

Antibiotics are amidst the most regularly recommended medications in modern medicine. Antibiotics are useless against viral infections. When you take antibiotics, follow the guidelines carefully. It is important to finish your medicine even if you feel improved. If you stop treatment too soon, some bacteria may survive and re-infect you. Do not save antibiotics for later or use someone else's prescription

  • Novel antibacterial drug discovery
  • Skin and soft tissue infections
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Acute diarrhea, gastroenteritis, and food poisoning (Campylobacteriosis)
  • Common gynecologic Infections
  • Fever and apparent acute central nervous system Infection

Pharmacology is a branch in science concerned with the effects of the drugs on living organisms (pharmacodynamics) and the effects of living organisms with the drugs (pharmacokinetics). This subject embodies drug composition and properties, interactions, toxicology, therapy, and medicinal uses such as application and antipathogenic capabilities. Pharmacology is subdivided into two categories as mentioned above, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. Pharmacodynamics deals with chemical interactions with body/cell receptors. Pharmacokinetics, on the other hand, deals with the four stages of chemicals passing through the body: absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. 

Antibiotics are frequently recommended during pregnancy. The specific medication must be chosen carefully, however. Some antibiotics are prescribed to take during pregnancy, while others are not. Safety depends on various factors, including the type of antibiotic, when in pregnancy you take the antibiotic, how much you take and for how long. Antibiotics normally advised safe during pregnancy:  Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Clindamycin, Erythromycin, Penicillin, Nitrofurantoin. Despite there's no direct clue that these antibiotics cause birth defects, additional research is needed. In the interim, use of these medications is still assured in some cases.

  • Safe use of antiÔÇÉinfective agents
  • Current investigations in broad spectrum antibiotics
  • Antibiotics and neurological damag

The pharmacodynamics of an antimicrobial drug relates its pharmacokinetics to the time course of the antimicrobial effects at the site of the infection. Knowledge of the drug's antimicrobial pharmacodynamics effects provides a more rational basis for determination of optimal dosing regimens in terms of the dose and the dosing interval than do the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) determined in vitro. This session mainly focus on pharmacokinetics, antimicrobial pharmacodynamics, the effect of pharmacodynamics on the emergence of resistant bacterial subpopulations, and the development of pharmacodynamics breakpoints for use in the design of trials of these drugs and in the treatment of infected patients

The study of the immune system is known as immunology, and it is important to the biological and medical sciences. We are protected from infection by the immune system thanks to several levels of defence. Diseases including cancer, allergies, and autoimmunity will develop if the system is not operating properly. The immune response is a biological mechanism that recognises and gets rid of antigen substances in addition to being the body's reaction to antigen stimulation. The majority of immune system components are cellular in nature and unrelated to any one organ, yet they are implanted or circulating in different tissues all over the body. Immunology has applications in countless medical disciplines, especially in the fields of Organ Transplantation, Virology, Oncology, Rheumatology, Bacteriology, Parasitology and Dermatology.

Infectious diseases are illnesses caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or fungi that can be transmitted from one person to another either directly or indirectly (vector-borne). The invasion of disease-causing pathogens into an organism's body tissues, their growth, and the host tissues' response to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce are all considered to be infections. A condition brought on by an infection is referred to as an infectious disease, often known as a transmissible or communicable sickness. There are many different pathogens that can cause infections, but bacteria and viruses are the most prevalent ones. Hosts' immune systems can aid in their ability to combat disease. The medical specialty that deals with infections is referred to as infectious disease.

  • Influenza
  • Cryptosporidiosis
  • Vector-Borne Diseases
  • Legionnaires’ Disease
  • Human Metapneumovirus
  • Antibiotic-Resistant Diseases
  • Valley Fever
  • Immunity and Infectious Diseases

Alternatives to antibiotics are broadly defined as any substance that can be substituted for therapeutic drugs that are increasingly becoming ineffective against pathogenic bacteria due to antimicrobial resistance. Although antibiotics remain an essential tool for treating animal diseases on the farm, the availability of effective medical interventions to prevent and control animal diseases is one of the most significant challenges facing veterinary medicine in the 21st century. Phytochemicals as antibiotic alternatives to promote growth and enhance host health. Innovative drugs, chemicals, and enzymes within the animal production chain. Vaccines as alternatives to antibiotics for food producing animals. Also recent research provides numerous possibilities for the application nanomaterials in broad-spectrum eradication of pathogenic bacteria with many applications such as skin pathogen infection, implant sterilization, and wastewater treatment. 

As research into antibiotic resistance expands, it is important to adopt an explicitly proactive approach to antibiotic resistance identification and surveillance, as well as antibiotic therapy development. This proactive approach involves using a combination of functional metagenomics, next-generation sequencing and cutting-edge computational methods to monitor the evolution and dissemination of resistance before a given resistance determinant emerges in a pathogen or in the clinical setting, as well as proactively developing next-generation therapies that target these resistance determinants. Recent advances in the field highlight the promise that the next generation of resistome studies hold for characterizing and countering emerging resistance threats. 

Environmental microbes are a leading source of drug discovery, and several microbial products ( anti-tumour products, antibiotics, immunosuppressants and others) are used frequently for human therapies. Most of these products were accessed from cultivable (<1%) environmental microbes, means that the large number of microbes were not targeted for drug discovery. With the onset of new and emerging technologies, we are poised to harvest novel drugs from the so-called 'uncultivable' microbes. Multidisciplinary way of linking different technologies can assist and reform drug discovery from uncultivable microbes and inspect the current cramp of technologies and scenario to swamped such constraints that might further expand the promise of drugs from environmental microbes

  • Novel species discovery
  • Micos from different areas (patients, geographical locations)
  • Genetically modified organisms

Antibiotic overuse and misuse has led to a growing number of bacteria in humans, animals and the environment that are resistant to life-saving antimicrobial therapies. Urgent action is needed to halt the development of resistance, and to accelerate new treatments for bacterial infection. Research includes epidemiology of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive infections, genetic mechanisms of resistance, evolution and transmission in the hospital setting, as well as the community, and antimicrobial stewardship


New antibiotics and non-antibiotic approaches are crucial in the fight against antibiotic resistance, a global health threat. Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria evolve and become resistant to the drugs designed to kill them. This makes it harder to treat infections and increases the risk of severe complications. The development of new antibiotics is essential to combat resistant bacteria. Scientists are constantly searching for novel molecules and compounds that can effectively target and kill bacteria. These new antibiotics aim to bypass existing resistance mechanisms and provide alternative treatment options. In addition to new antibiotics, non-antibiotic approaches are being explored to tackle bacterial infections. One such approach is the use of bacteriophages, which are viruses that infect and kill bacteria. Bacteriophage therapy shows promise in targeting specific bacterial strains and reducing the risk of resistance. Other non-antibiotic approaches include immunotherapy, which enhances the body's immune response to fight infections, and the use of antimicrobial peptides, which are naturally occurring molecules that can kill bacteria. Combining these new antibiotics and non-antibiotic approaches with responsible antibiotic use and infection prevention measures can help mitigate the spread of antibiotic resistance. It is crucial to invest in research and development to discover and implement these innovative strategies to ensure effective treatment options for bacterial infections in the future.

Modern antibiotics have revolutionized the field of medicine, providing effective treatment options for various diseases and infections. These powerful drugs target and kill bacteria, helping to alleviate symptoms and prevent complications. For common bacterial infections such as urinary tract infections, respiratory infections, and skin infections, antibiotics like penicillin, cephalosporin’s, and macrolides are often prescribed. These antibiotics work by interfering with the bacteria's ability to grow and reproduce, ultimately leading to their destruction. In recent years, there have been notable advancements in antibiotic development, including the introduction of broad-spectrum antibiotics that can target a wide range of bacteria. Fluoroquinolones and carbapenems are examples of such antibiotics, often used to treat severe infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. Furthermore, antibiotics like tetracyclines and sulfonamides are commonly used to treat acne and other skin conditions caused by bacteria. These antibiotics work by reducing the number of bacteria on the skin and reducing inflammation. It is important to note that antibiotics are only effective against bacterial infections and should not be used to treat viral infections such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can contribute to antibiotic resistance, making it more difficult to treat bacterial infections in the future.

Prescribing doctors are, progressively, using clinical trial data as a major source of information for evidence-based medicine for the remedy of infectious diseases, as in other clinical disciplines. However, it may be difficult to excerpt from these data the material that is needed for the management of the individual patient. At the same time, clinical trial testimony have been used, probably satisfactorily, in the process of drug registration, and the pharmaceutical industry has spent progressively large amount of money to satisfy the needs of this process. In the face of all these problems, switch in the way antibiotic clinical trials are designed and performed are clearly necessary, although this must not disturb the balance so far as to restore them less useful for those who currently derive greatest benefit from them.

  • Evaluations of efficacy
  • Evaluations of safety
  • Clinical biochemistry & clinical microbiology

Antimicrobial resistance is a complex problem with many diverse contributing factors. It is major cause of health concerns adding cost to oneself and to the community, directly or indirectly. Prevention is still the best tool to reduce the infection spread and thereby AMR. Along with rational use of existing antimicrobial drugs, development of new effective compounds and new diagnostic technology is the need. Joint efforts from patients, prescribers and individuals to international regulators and policy makers are needed to fight against the globally spreading antimicrobial resistance.