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10th World Congress and Exhibition on Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance, will be organized around the theme “Focusing on Emerging Therapies and Current Research Work ”
Antibiotics 2023 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Antibiotics 2023
Submit your abstract to any of the mentioned tracks.
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Antibiotics are a type of antimicrobials used in treatment and prevention of bacterial infections. They may inhibit or kill the growth of bacteria. Many antibiotics are also effective against protozoans and fungi; some are toxic to animals and humans also, even when given in therapeutic dosage. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses such as influenza or common cold, and may be harmful when taken inappropriately. Physicians must ensure the patient has a bacterial infection before prescribing antibiotics.
- Track 1-1Introduction to antibiotic uses and challenges
- Track 1-2Basic principles of prescribing antibiotics
- Track 1-3Mechanisms of bacteriostatic or bactericidal action
- Track 1-4Antibiotic Use Linked to Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosis
Antibiotic resistance invoke especially to the resistance to antibiotics that occurs in common bacteria that cause infection. The easy approach and capability of Antibiotics led to overuse in live-stock raising promotes bacteria to flourish resistance. This led to comprehensive problems with antibiotic resistance. World Health Organization (WHO) classified antimicrobial resistance as a serious hazard and no longer a indicator for the future. Antibiotic resistance is now among every part of the world and its stirring everyone irrespective to the age. When infections become resistant to first-line drugs, more costly therapies must be used. A longer duration of illness and treatment, often in hospitals, increases health care costs as well as the financial burden on families and societies. To help prevent the development of current and future bacterial resistance, it is essential to prescribe antibiotics according to the principles of antimicrobial stewardship, such as specify antibiotics only when they are needed.
- Track 2-1Antimicrobial Stewardship
- Track 2-2Bacterial antibiotic resistance
- Track 2-3Mechanism of antimicrobial resistance
- Track 2-4Novel antibacterial drug discovery
Certain bacterial infections now oppose all antibiotics. The resistance problem may be reversible, but only if society begins to acknowledge how the drugs affect "good" bacteria as well as "bad". Historically, most antibacterials were used in hospitals, where they were integrated into surgical clothes and soaps to limit the spread of infection. More recently, however, those substances (including triclosan, triclocarbon and such quaternary ammonium compounds as benzalkonium chloride) have been mixed into lotions, dish-washing detergents and soaps meant for general consumers. They have also been impregnated into such items as cutting boards, toys, high chairs and mattress pads
- Track 3-1Antibiotics and alternatives
- Track 3-2Grand challenges – antimicrobial resistance
- Track 3-3Systemic intervention – values, conflict and blue room resolution
- Track 3-4Intervention against antimicrobial resistance – approaches and implementation
Antibiotics are also noted as antibacterials, are types of medications that destroy or slow down the growth of bacteria. Alexander Fleming discovered first penicillin, the first chemical compound with antibiotic properties. Some of the common antibiotics are Aminoglycosides, Cephalosporins, Carbapenems, Macrolides, Penicillin, Quinolones, Sulfonamides and, Tetracyclines etc. General fundamentals of antibiotic prescribing are use: First-line antibiotics first, Reserve broad spectrum antibiotics for marked circumstances only, prescribe antibiotics for bacterial infections if Symptoms are significant or severe.
- Track 4-1Hypocholesterolemic agents
- Track 4-2Lipopeptide
- Track 4-3Macrolides
- Track 4-4Monobactams
- Track 4-5Monobactams
Choice of relevant antibiotics is presently based on individual patient need. Preservation of bacterial sensitivity needs perceptive of how antibiotics select resistance. ‘Ten commandments’ which might be considered carefully when a preference has to be made for antibiotic prescribing. The compelling importance of the fact that all healthcare personnel should take ownership of the need to specify accordingly and to practice effective infection control. A realization that antibiotics may not be competent for the tasks required of them and eventually, with widespread resistance, may be incapable of the task they do today.
- Track 5-1Macrolides
- Track 5-2Immunosuppressive agents
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) is a form of contagious bacterial infection. People sometimes call it a superbug because it is resistant to numerous antibiotics. In healthy people, MRSA does not usually cause a severe infection, but older people, individuals with health conditions, and those with a weakened immune system may be at risk. MRSA is a common and potentially serious infection that has developed resistance to several types of antibiotics. These include methicillin and related antibiotics, such as Penicillin, Vancomycin, and Oxacillin. This resistance makes MRSA difficult to treat.
Most MRSA infections occur in people who've been in hospitals or other health care settings, such as nursing homes and dialysis centers. When it occurs in these settings, it's known as health care-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA). HA-MRSA infections typically are associated with invasive procedures or devices, such as surgeries, intravenous tubing or artificial joints. Another type of MRSA infection has occurred in the wider community among healthy people. This form, community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA), often begins as a painful skin boil. It's spread by skin-to-skin contact.
An antimicrobial therapy kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, or protozoans. Antimicrobial agents are some of the most widely, and often used therapeutic drugs worldwide. It contributes significantly to the quality of life of many people and reduces the morbidity and mortality due to infectious disease. The remarkable success of antimicrobial therapy has been achieved with comparatively little toxicity and expense.
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also called Host Defence Peptides (HDPs) are part of the innate immune response found among all classes of life. AMPs have a broad spectrum of targeted organisms ranging from viruses to parasites. These peptides are potent, broad spectrum antibiotics which demonstrate potential as novel therapeutic agents. Unlike the majority of conventional antibiotics it appears that antimicrobial peptides frequently destabilize biological membranes, can form transmembrane channels, and may also have the ability to enhance immunity by functioning as Immunomodulatory Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a class of small peptides that widely exist in nature and they are an important part of the innate immune system of different organisms. AMPs have a wide range of inhibitory effects against bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses.
Antibiotics are amidst the most regularly recommended medications in modern medicine. Antibiotics are useless against viral infections. When you take antibiotics, follow the guidelines carefully. It is important to finish your medicine even if you feel improved. If you stop treatment too soon, some bacteria may survive and re-infect you. Do not save antibiotics for later or use someone else's prescription. Each time you take an antibiotic, bacteria are killed. Sometimes, bacteria causing infections are already resistant to prescribed antibiotics. Bacteria may also become resistant during treatment of an infection. Resistant bacteria do not respond to the antibiotics and continue to cause infection. A common misconception is that a person's body becomes resistant to specific medicines. However, it is the bacteria, not people, that become resistant to the medicines.
- Track 9-1amoxicillin
- Track 9-2doxycycline
- Track 9-3cephalexin
- Track 9-4Ciprofloxacin
Antimicrobial prophylaxis is generally used by clinicians for the prevention of numerous infectious diseases. Optimal antimicrobial agents for prophylaxis should be nontoxic, inexpensive, bactericidal and active against the typical pathogens that can motive surgical site infection postoperatively. To maximize its effectiveness, intravenous perioperative prophylaxis should be carried out within 30 to 60 minutes before the surgical incision. Antimicrobial prophylaxis should be of short time to downturn toxicity and antimicrobial resistance and to reduce cost. Prophylactic antibiotics are antibiotics that you take to prevent infection. Normally, you take antibiotics when you have an infection. Your doctor may give you antibiotics ahead of time to prevent infection in some situations where your risk of infection is high
- Track 10-1Prevention of microbial infection
- Track 10-2Antibiotic selection
- Track 10-3Advantages of long-acting antibiotics
- Track 10-4Antibiotics in aquaculture
Antibiotics are frequently recommended during pregnancy. The specific medication must be chosen carefully, however. Some antibiotics are prescribed to take during pregnancy, while others are not. Safety depends on various factors, including the type of antibiotic, when in pregnancy you take the antibiotic, how much you take and for how long. Antibiotics normally advised safe during pregnancy: Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Clindamycin, Erythromycin, Penicillin, Nitrofurantoin. Despite there's no direct clue that these antibiotics cause birth defects, additional research is needed. In the interim, use of these medications is still assured in some cases. The use of most antibiotics is considered compatible with breast feeding. Penicillins, aminopenicillins, clavulanic acid, cephalosporins, macrolides and metronidazole at dosages at the low end of the recommended dosage range are considered appropriate for use for lactating women.
Antibiotics must be used accordingly in humans and animals because both uses share to the emergence, persistence, and escalation of resistant bacteria. Resistant bacteria in food-producing animals are of particular concern. Food animals play as a source of resistant pathogens and resistance mechanisms that can directly or indirectly result in antibiotic resistant infections in humans. Resistant bacteria may be transmitted to humans through the foods we eat. Some bacteria have turned resistant to more than one sort of antibiotic, which makes it more difficult to treat the infections they cause. Sustaining the efficiency of antibiotic drugs is vital to insulating human and animal health.
New diseases are originating globally and old diseases are re-emerging as Infectious agents evolve or spread, and as changes occur in conservation, socio-economic conditions, and population patterns. Likewise, many diseases thought to be decently controlled appear to be making a revival. In developed countries, public health measures such as sewage treatment, vaccination programs, sanitation and access to good medical care-including a wide range of antibiotics-have virtually disposed “traditional” diseases such as tuberculosis, diphtheria and whooping cough
Antibacterial action customarily falls within one of four mechanisms, three of which involve the inhibition or regulation of enzymes tangled in cell wall biosynthesis, nucleic acid metabolism and repair, or protein synthesis, respectively. The fourth mechanism associates the interruption of membrane structure. Many of these cellular functions targeted by antibiotics are most effective in multiplying cells. Since there is often overlap in these functions between eukaryotic mammalian cells and prokaryotic bacterial cells, it is not surprising that some antibiotics have also been found to be useful as anticancer agents.
Environmental microbes are a leading source of drug discovery, and several microbial products ( anti-tumour products, antibiotics, immunosuppressants and others) are used frequently for human therapies. Most of these products were accessed from cultivable (<1%) environmental microbes, means that the large number of microbes were not targeted for drug discovery. With the onset of new and emerging technologies, we are poised to harvest novel drugs from the so-called 'uncultivable' microbes. Multidisciplinary way of linking different technologies can assist and reform drug discovery from uncultivable microbes and inspect the current cramp of technologies and scenario to swamped such constraints that might further expand the promise of drugs from environmental microbe
In the prior most drugs have been invented either by identifying the active ingredient from traditional remedies or by serendipitous discovery. A new access has been to recognize how disease and infection are controlled at the molecular and physiological level and to mark specific entities based on this knowledge. The process of drug discovery involves the identification of candidates, characterization, screening, synthesis, and assays for therapeutic efficacy. Evolution of an existing drug molecule from a ordinary form to a novel delivery system can significantly improve its performance in terms of patient compliance, efficacy and safety. These days, drug delivery companies are engaged in the development of numerous platform technologies to get ambitious advantage, extend patent life, and increase market share of their products. Formerly a compound has displayed its value in these tests; it will begin the process of drug development prior to clinical trials.
Regulatory affairs (RA), are also called as government affairs, is a profession within regulated industries, such as medical devices, pharmaceuticals etc. Regulatory affairs also have a very specific meaning within the healthcare industries (medical devices, functional foods, biologics and pharmaceuticals). Regulatory affairs (medical affairs) professionals (aka regulatory professionals) generally have the duty for the following general areas: Ensuring that the companies obey with all of the regulations and laws pertaining to their business
The global antibiotics market was valued at $39.6 billion in 2013 and is expected to reach $41.2 billion by 2018, at a CAGR of 0.8%. From, 2005 this market is seen to grow at an annual rate of 6.6% until 2011. There are many companies producing antibiotics these days and there are many other antibiotics present in the market such as aminoglycoside antibiotics and it cap around 79% of the global demand. Moreover, the other antibiotics such as penicillin have 8%, streptomycin 1%, chloramnphenicol 1 %, tetracyclines 4%, erythromycin has 7%, market.
Prescribing doctors are, progressively, using clinical trial data as a major source of information for evidence-based medicine for the remedy of infectious diseases, as in other clinical disciplines. However, it may be difficult to excerpt from these data the material that is needed for the management of the individual patient. At the same time, clinical trial testimony have been used, probably satisfactorily, in the process of drug registration, and the pharmaceutical industry has spent progressively large amount of money to satisfy the needs of this process. In the face of all these problems, switch in the way antibiotic clinical trials are designed and performed are clearly necessary, although this must not disturb the balance so far as to restore them less useful for those who currently derive greatest benefit from them
The pharmacodynamics of an antimicrobial drug relates its pharmacokinetics to the time course of the antimicrobial effects at the site of the infection. Knowledge of the drug's antimicrobial pharmacodynamics effects provides a more rational basis for determination of optimal dosing regimens in terms of the dose and the dosing interval than do the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) determined in vitro. This session mainly focus on pharmacokinetics, antimicrobial pharmacodynamics, the effect of pharmacodynamics on the emergence of resistant bacterial subpopulations, and the development of pharmacodynamics breakpoints for use in the design of trials of these drugs and in the treatment of infected patients.
Antimicrobial resistance is a complex problem with many diverse contributing factors. It is major cause of health concerns adding cost to oneself and to the community, directly or indirectly. Prevention is still the best tool to reduce the infection spread and thereby AMR. Along with rational use of existing antimicrobial drugs, development of new effective compounds and new diagnostic technology is the need. Joint efforts from patients, prescribers and individuals to international regulators and policy makers are needed to fight against the globally spreading antimicrobial resistance.
Antibiotic overuse and misuse has led to a growing number of bacteria in humans, animals and the environment that are resistant to life-saving antimicrobial therapies. Urgent action is needed to halt the development of resistance, and to accelerate new treatments for bacterial infection. Research includes epidemiology of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive infections, genetic mechanisms of resistance, evolution and transmission in the hospital setting, as well as the community, and antimicrobial stewardship.
As research into antibiotic resistance expands, it is important to adopt an explicitly proactive approach to antibiotic resistance identification and surveillance, as well as antibiotic therapy development. This proactive approach involves using a combination of functional metagenomics, next-generation sequencing and cutting-edge computational methods to monitor the evolution and dissemination of resistance before a given resistance determinant emerges in a pathogen or in the clinical setting, as well as proactively developing next-generation therapies that target these resistance determinants. Recent advances in the field highlight the promise that the next generation of resistome studies hold for characterizing and countering emerging resistance threats.
Alternatives to antibiotics are broadly defined as any substance that can be substituted for therapeutic drugs that are increasingly becoming ineffective against pathogenic bacteria due to antimicrobial resistance. Although antibiotics remain an essential tool for treating animal diseases on the farm, the availability of effective medical interventions to prevent and control animal diseases is one of the most significant challenges facing veterinary medicine in the 21st century. Phytochemicals as antibiotic alternatives to promote growth and enhance host health. Innovative drugs, chemicals, and enzymes within the animal production chain. Vaccines as alternatives to antibiotics for food producing animals. Also recent research provides numerous possibilities for the application nanomaterials in broad-spectrum eradication of pathogenic bacteria with many applications such as skin pathogen infection, implant sterilization, and wastewater treatment.
Pharmacology is a branch in science concerned with the effects of the drugs on living organisms (pharmacodynamics) and the effects of living organisms with the drugs (pharmacokinetics). This subject embodies drug composition and properties, interactions, toxicology, therapy, and medicinal uses such as application and antipathogenic capabilities. Pharmacology is subdivided into two categories as mentioned above, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. Pharmacodynamics deals with chemical interactions with body/cell receptors. Pharmacokinetics, on the other hand, deals with the four stages of chemicals passing through the body: absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion
Toxicology is the scientific study of adverse effects that occur in living organisms due to chemicals. It involves observing and reporting symptoms, mechanisms, detection and treatments of toxic substances, in particular relation to the poisoning of humans. It includes environmental agents and chemical compounds found in nature, as well as pharmaceutical compounds that are synthesized for medical use by humans. These substances may produce toxic effects in living organisms including disturbance in growth patterns, discomfort, disease and death.
In drug development, preclinical development, also named preclinical studies and nonclinical studies, is a stage of research that begins before clinical trials (testing in humans) can begin, and during which important feasibility, iterative testing and drug safety data are collected.
The main goals of pre-clinical studies are to determine the safe dose for first-in-man study and assess a product's safety profile. Products may include new medical devices, drugs, gene therapy solutions and diagnostic tools.
On average, only one in every 5,000 compounds that enters drug discovery to the stage of preclinical development becomes an approved drug
Drug safety testing is happening in a growing number of countries including Austria, Canada, Colombia, Mexico, the Netherlands, Switzerland, United States and the UK. This briefing discusses testing using sophisticated analytical equipment, not DIY kits that cannot identify many contaminants, or strength. Drug safety testing is happening in a growing number of countries including Austria, Canada, Colombia, Mexico, the Netherlands, Switzerland, United States and the UK. This briefing discusses testing using sophisticated analytical equipment, not DIY kits that cannot identify many contaminants, or strength
Clinical pharmacy is the discipline of Pharmacy where pharmacists are meant to provide patient care which helps in optimizing the use of drugs and improves health, wellness, and prevents diseases. This session is dealt with topics like basic components of clinical pharmacy practice Prescribing drugs, Reviewing drug use, Administering drugs, Counseling, Documenting professional services, Consulting, Preventing Medication Errors etc
All pharmaceutical researchers know the feeling. Somewhere out there must be that elusive molecule — one that will inhibit this enzyme or activate that receptor in the way they want, and without causing unwanted side-effects. But finding it is another matter. For small-molecule drugs — the mainstay of the pharmaceutical industry — time-consuming and expensive screening is needed to pick out promising candidates from the vast number of natural and synthetic compounds available. Testing large numbers of compounds to see if they produce an appropriate biochemical or cellular effect is usually one of the first steps in the drug-discovery pathway, and ways of making this screening faster, more effective and less expensive are in continual development.
Statistical analysis is one of the foundations of evidence-based clinical practice, a key in conducting new clinical research and in evaluating and applying prior research. In this paper, we review the choice of statistical procedures, analyses of the associations among variables and techniques used when the clinical processes being examined are still in process. We discuss methods for building predictive models in clinical situations, and ways to assess the stability of these models and other quantitative conclusions. Techniques for comparing independent events are distinguished from those used with events in a causal chain or otherwise linked. Attention then turns to study design, to the determination of the sample size needed to make a given comparison, and to statistically negative studies.
Adverse drug reactions can be considered a form of toxicity; however, toxicity is most commonly applied to effects of overingestion (accidental or intentional) or to elevated blood levels or enhanced drug effects that occur during appropriate use (eg, when drug metabolism is temporarily inhibited by a disorder or another drug). For information on toxicity of specific drugs see the table Symptoms and Treatment of Specific Poisons. Side effect is an imprecise term often used to refer to a drug’s unintended effects that occur within the therapeutic range. Because all drugs have the potential for adverse drug reactions, risk-benefit analysis (analyzing the likelihood of benefit vs risk of ADRs) is necessary whenever a drug is prescribed.
In the US, 3 to 7% of all hospitalizations are due to adverse drug reactions. ADRs occur during 10 to 20% of hospitalizations; about 10 to 20% of these ADRs are severe. These statistics do not include the number of ADRs that occur in ambulatory and nursing home patients. Although the exact number of ADRs is not certain, ADRs represent a significant public health problem that is, for the most part, preventable.
Biochemical pharmacology uses the methods of biochemistry, biophysics, molecular biology, structural biology, cell biology, and cell physiology to define the mechanisms of drug action and how drugs influence the organism by studies on intact animals, organs, cells, subcellular compartments and individual protein molecules. The biochemical pharmacologist also uses drugs as probes to discover new information about biosynthetic and cell signalling pathways and their kinetics, and investigates how drugs can correct the biochemical abnormalities that are responsible for human illness, thus enabling the elucidation of pathophysiological mechanisms that pave the way for further drug discover